醫學與健康科學學院專家 Jalil AM
“Polyphenols in Cocoa and Cocoa Products: Is There a Link between Antioxidant Properties and Health?”
(原文: The chronology of cocoa began in 2,000 B.C, the date attributed by historians to the oldest drinking cups and plates that have ever been discovered in Latin America at a small village in the Ulúa valley in Honduras, where cocoa played a central role. In 200-900 AD, cocoa was one of the main products in Mayan agriculture and religion. For instance, cocoa is used as a gift to deceased dignitaries at their funeral ceremonies and as currency . The word cacao is derived from the Olmec and the subsequent Mayan languages (kakaw) and the chocolate-related term cacahuatl is Nahuatl (Aztec language) derived from Olmec/Mayan etymology . In 1737, the cocoa tree was named Theobroma cacao which refers to the mythical background of the tree literally means “cocoa, food of the gods” . Dillinger et al.  reported that medicinal uses of cocoa had been traced from Mexican (Aztec) sources and approximately 150 uses of cocoa for medical treatment had been documented. Various parts of Theobroma cacao have been utilized, namely cocoa beans prepared as chocolate, cocoa bark, cocoa butter, cocoa flower, cocoa pulp and cocoa leaf. Cocoa was brought to Europe by the Spanish in 1505. By 1653, cocoa was used in Europe as a medicine rather than as a delicious foodstuff. The use of chocolate was recognized as stimulating the healthy function of the spleen and other digestive functions. Moreover, in the 17th and 18th century, chocolate was regularly prescribed or mixed into medications for all sorts of ailments and diseases from colds and coughing, to promote digestion, fertility, reinforce mental performance and as an anti-depressant .
1. Molecules. 2008 Sep 16;13(9):2190-219.
Polyphenols in cocoa and cocoa products: is there a link between antioxidant
properties and health?
Jalil AM(1), Ismail A.
(1)Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health
Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia 43400, UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan,
Cocoa and cocoa products have received much attention due to their significant
polyphenol contents. Cocoa and cocoa products, namely cocoa liquor, cocoa powder
and chocolates (milk and dark chocolates) may present varied polyphenol contents
and possess different levels of antioxidant potentials. For the past ten years,
at least 28 human studies have been conducted utilizing one of these cocoa
products. However, questions arise on which of these products would deliver the
best polyphenol contents and antioxidant effects. Moreover, the presence of
methylxanthines, peptides, and minerals could synergistically enhance or reduce
antioxidant properties of cocoa and cocoa products. To a greater extent, cocoa
beans from different countries of origins and the methods of preparation (primary
and secondary) could also partially influence the antioxidant polyphenols of
cocoa products. Hence, comprehensive studies on the aforementioned factors could
provide the understanding of health-promoting activities of cocoa or cocoa